The Invention of the Passport: Surveillance, Citizenship and the State ( Cambridge Studies in Law and Society) [John Torpey] on *FREE* shipping. Daniel Nordman THE INVENTION OF THE PASSPORT Surveillance, Citizenship and the State John Torpey University of California, Irvine □H CAMBRIDGE. The Invention of the Passport: Surveillance, Citizenship and the State. Front Cover · John Torpey, Professor of Sociology John Torpey. Cambridge University .
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This innovative book argues that docu- ments such as passports, internal passports and related mechanisms have been crucial in making distinctions between citizens and non-citizens. Beyond simply enunciating definitions and categories concerning identity, states must implement these distinctions, and they require documents in order to do so in individual cases.
On the same day, ironically, Goethe famously declared that “this date and place mark a new epoch in world history” 76 after the bedraggled French “nation in arms” defeated vastly better-trained Prussian troops in the battle at Valmy.
John Torpey. The Invention of the Passport; Surveillance, Citizenship and the State
Aside from merely authorizing domicile tge particular places, certifi- cates of residence were closely tied in to the provision of public welfare, particularly pensions. Soon, however, this relative laxity would become unacceptable to those at the helm of the Convention, who sought to gain firmer control of affairs. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.
In an important contribution to the newly proclaimed equality of French citizens, the revolutionaries began to move during this time toward the codification of a uniform national space in which goods and persons would be permitted to circulate freely.
In his important study The Nation-State and Violence, Giddens pays considerable attention to the growing role of surveillance in the development of “direct rule. Alternatively, states must be in a position to establish whether or not a would-be entrant matches the criteria laid down for authorized entry into their domains. Since the development of air travel, airline companies have been subjected to similar obligations.
On 7 January Assembly Member Le Coz, Bishop of the Breton departement of Ille-et-Vilaine, rose to demand that the Assembly take action on a steady stream of petitions from the departe- ments throughout France which, at least so he claimed, complained of the upsurge in brigandage that had followed the suppression of passport controls, and pleaded with his colleagues for their reestablishment.
The foreigner, increasingly defined exclusively in national rather than local terms, was perceived more and more ipso facto as a suspect.
But we may correct for the abstractness of “power” relative to that of money by seeing that identification papers of various kinds con- stitute the bureaucratic equivalent of money: To be sure, despotisms everywhere frequently asserted controls on movement before the modern period, but these states generally lacked the extensive administrative infrastructure necessary to carry out such regulation in a pervasive and systematic fashion.
Failing their institutionaliza- tion, “nations” must remain ephemeral and fuzzy.
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Alas, unlike tge Harrison Ford is involved, the door did not remain open until there was time for one last act of heroism. Insisting that the French state had delivered up the individual’s “movements and his conduct to a surveillance as extensive as it is dangerous” and that every person should be free “to breathe the air he chooses without hav- ing to ask permission from a master that can refuse him that right,” Peuchet declared passports “contrary to every principle of justice and reason” and demanded their abolition.
During the ensuing weeks, General Dumouriez concluded an armistice with the Austrians with the intention of marching on Paris to restore the monarchy and the Constitution of ; the death penalty was invoked against armed rebels, refractory priests, and emigres; and, by the end of the month, the latter had died “civil death” and were subject to the physical variety if they returned to the country.
In addition to teaching, Torpey also sits on the editorial boards of the journals Theory and Society and Journal of Human Rights. People who do not move in a container of some sort are difficult to constrain, and the effort to restrict them may entail turning the area to be controlled itself into a container.
A number of legislators shouted that such a provision was unacceptable, for, as Becquey put it, “you have no right” to determine where people shall go. The version of the law that was actually adopted required that those departing from the Kingdom- French or foreign – indicate this intention to the municipal authorities in their place of residence, and that this act be mentioned in their passports.
And, from long years of experience under the ancien regime, most of the French took for granted that that genie was loose on the world; perhaps, many of them must have thought, it had always been so.
The legal distinction between French citizen and foreigner thus origi- nated in the late medieval consolidation of royal authority at the expense of seigneurial rights.
A “great fear” swept the coun- try, provoking violent retribution against aristocrats and refractory priests as well as attacks on their property. The ability of states uniquely and unambiguously to identify persons, whether “their own” or others, is at the heart of the process whereby states, and the interna- tional state system, have succeeded over time in monopolizing the legitimate means of movement in the modern world.
The for- eign minister was accused of having furnished the passports under assumed names, and thus of collaborating in the King’s escape attempt. While this procedure had supposedly been followed in every other departement in the Republic, “it is clear that the law cannot have applied in Paris, where a conspiratorial municipality has been justly struck down by the national sovereignty that it sought to usurp.
Frontier garrisons prepared for invasion. That article has also appeared in French as “Aller et venir: Greer has described the results as follows: Far from regarding the reintroduction of passport controls as a small price to pay for defending the revolution’s larger gains, these critics saw the res- urrection of social control techniques characteristic of the ancien regimeas a reversal of the newfound freedom that the revolution had inaugurated, and therefore as likely to undermine popular support for the revolution- ary project.
Such entities may play a role in the control of movement, but they nivention so today at the behest of states. First, I show how and jkhn states have sought to monopolize the “legitimate means of joh – that is, to gather into their own hands the exclusive right to authorize and regulate movement.
Their views failed to carry the day. In particu- lar, Girardin worried that “inquisitorial laws are always advantageous to the executive power. In adopting these measures, the Assembly had taken a new departure as well.
Passport requirements, according to Lemalliaud, “may per- haps afflict the bad citizens, but the true friends of liberty would gladly support this minor inconvenience. Despite the fact that it took a harder line against footloose elements, it, too, was unable to gain mastery over the country.
The emigres of yesterday met the emigres of tomorrow on the roads to the frontiers, and the latter outnumbered the former. In the process, it took the names of the eighty-three new departments from their geographical features and replaced the thirty-six royal intendancies with new departmental capitals in order to sweep away the spatial relics of the ancien regime.
Horpey effect, he said, the legislators wanted to have dis- tinct passports for the interior and for exit, and thus proposed to require those wishing to depart to take a passport in which that aim was to be duly indicated. Enthusiasm for the nation and its te by jihn state would mutually characterize that new epoch of which Goethe spoke. Their efforts to implement such regulation have driven them toward the creation of the means uniquely and unambiguously to identify indi- vidual persons, whether “their own” or others.